L’instinct animal PDF

Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living l’instinct animal PDF towards a particular complex behavior.


An instinctive behavior of shaking water from wet fur. Sea turtles, newly hatched on a beach, will automatically move toward the ocean. A marsupial climbs into its mother’s pouch upon being born. Instincts are inborn complex patterns of behavior that exist in most members of the species, and should be distinguished from reflexes, which are simple responses of an organism to a specific stimulus, such as the contraction of the pupil in response to bright light or the spasmodic movement of the lower leg when the knee is tapped.

The absence of volitional capacity must not be confused with an inability to modify fixed action patterns. Instinct as a concept fell out of favor in the 1920s with the rise of behaviorism and such thinkers as B. Skinner, which held that most significant behavior is learned. An interest in innate behaviors arose again in the 1950s with Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, who made the distinction between instinct and learned behaviors.

Our modern understanding of instinctual behavior in animals owes much to their work. For instance, there exists a sensitive period for a bird in which it learns the identity of its mother. The term « instinct » in psychology was first used in the 1870s by Wilhelm Wundt. By the close of the 19th century, most repeated behavior was considered instinctual. Sigmund Freud considered that mental images of bodily needs, expressed in the form of desires, are called instincts. Psychologist Abraham Maslow argued that humans no longer have instincts because we have the ability to override them in certain situations. He felt that what is called instinct is often imprecisely defined, and really amounts to strong drives.